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Areas of Need Explained

2.Areas of need Explained


Children have special educational needs if they have a learning difficulty which calls for extra special educational provision to be made for them that is additional or different from that made generally for others of the same age.

Children have a learning difficulty if they:
(a) have a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of children of the same age; or
(b) have a disability which prevents or hinders them from making use of educational facilities of a kind generally provided for children of the same age in schools within the area of the local education authority,
(c) are under compulsory school age and fall within the definition at (a) or (b) above or would so do if special educational provision was not made for them.

Children must not be regarded as having a learning difficulty solely because the language or form of language of their home is different from the language in which they will be taught.

The  SEN Code of Practice (Jan 2015) states that there are main areas which
cover Special Educational Needs. These areas and their meanings are as follows:

Communication and InteractionChildren may have a delay or disorder in one or more of the following areas:
 Attention / Interaction skills:
 May have difficulties ignoring distractions.
 Need reminders to keep attention.
 May need regular prompts to stay on task.
 May need individualised motivation in order to complete tasks.
 Difficulty attending in whole class.
 Interaction will not always be appropriate.
 May have peer relationship difficulties.
 May not be able to initiate or maintain a conversation.
 Understanding / Receptive Language:
 May need visual support to understand or process spoken language.
 May need augmented communication systems.
 Frequent misunderstandings.
 Repetition of language and some basic language needs to be used to aid their understanding.
 Speech / Expressive Language:
 May use simplified language and limited vocabulary.
 Ideas/conversations may be difficult to follow, with the need to request frequent clarification.
 Some immaturities in the speech sound system.
 Grammar/phonological awareness still fairly poor and therefore their literacy can be affected.
Cognition and LearningMay have difficulties with the skills needed for effective learning such as use of:
 Language, memory and reasoning skills
 Sequencing and organisational skills
 An understanding of number
 Problem-solving and concept development skills
 Fine and gross motor skills
 Independent learning skills
 Exercising choice
 Decision making
 Information processing
 Children may have a specific learning disability such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia or dysgraphia.
Social, Mental and Emotional HealthMay have difficulties with social and emotional development which may lead to or stem from:
 Social isolation
 Behaviour difficulties
 Attention difficulties (such as ADHD)
 Anxiety and depression
 Attachment disorders
 Low self esteem
 Issues with self-image
Sensory and/or PhysicalThese pupils may have a medical or genetic condition that could lead to difficulties with:
 Specific medical conditions
 Gross/fine motor skills
 Visual / hearing impairment
 Accessing the curriculum without adaptation
 Physically accessing the building(s) or equipment.
 Over sensitivity to noise / smells / light / touch / taste.
 Toileting / self-care.