2. Areas Of Need Explained

2.Areas of need Explained


Children have special educational needs if they have a learning difficulty which calls for extra special educational provision to be made for them that is additional or different from that made generally for others of the same age.

Children have a learning difficulty if they:
(a) have a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of children of the same age; or
(b) have a disability which prevents or hinders them from making use of educational facilities of a kind generally provided for children of the same age in schools within the area of the local education authority,
(c) are under compulsory school age and fall within the definition at (a) or (b) above or would so do if special educational provision was not made for them.

Children must not be regarded as having a learning difficulty solely because the language or form of language of their home is different from the language in which they will be taught.

The  SEN Code of Practice (Jan 2015) states that there are main areas which
cover Special Educational Needs. These areas and their meanings are as follows:

Area of Special Educational Need Relating to difficulties with:
Communication and Interaction Children may have a delay or disorder in one or more of the following areas:
Attention / Interaction skills:
May have difficulties ignoring distractions.
Need reminders to keep attention.
May need regular prompts to stay on task.
May need individualised motivation in order to complete tasks.
Difficulty attending in whole class.
Interaction will not always be appropriate.
May have peer relationship difficulties.
May not be able to initiate or maintain a conversation.
Understanding / Receptive Language:
May need visual support to understand or process spoken language.
May need augmented communication systems.
Frequent misunderstandings.
Repetition of language and some basic language needs to be used to aid their understanding.
Speech / Expressive Language:
May use simplified language and limited vocabulary.
Ideas/conversations may be difficult to follow, with the need to request frequent clarification.
Some immaturities in the speech sound system.
Grammar/phonological awareness still fairly poor and therefore their literacy can be affected.
Cognition and Learning May have difficulties with the skills needed for effective learning such as use of:
Language, memory and reasoning skills
Sequencing and organisational skills
An understanding of number
Problem-solving and concept development skills
Fine and gross motor skills
Independent learning skills
Exercising choice
Decision making
Information processing
Children may have a specific learning disability such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia or dysgraphia.
Social, Mental and Emotional Health May have difficulties with social and emotional development which may lead to or stem from:
Social isolation
Behaviour difficulties
Attention difficulties (such as ADHD)
Anxiety and depression
Attachment disorders
Low self esteem
Issues with self-image
Sensory and/or Physical These pupils may have a medical or genetic condition that could lead to difficulties with:
Specific medical conditions
Gross/fine motor skills
Visual / hearing impairment
Accessing the curriculum without adaptation
Physically accessing the building(s) or equipment.
Over sensitivity to noise / smells / light / touch / taste.
Toileting / self-care.

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